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Archive for the ‘Paper Summaries’ Category

Description and Composition of e-learning Services

Posted by kathayat on January 17, 2008

    Oussama Kassem Zein and Yvon Kermarrec

    Journal of Software Engineering Vol. 2 No. 5 November 2007

    • Defines the meta-model for learning service descriptions
    • Uses ontologies to index and store these models
    • So that students, teachers, researchers can use this model to query and publish learning services
    • Facilitator [along with Ontobroker– a inference engine (to trigger various processes and events) and for ontology management (add, delete, modify ontologies)] based on ontology is developed/used for service discovery and composition. It provides the interfaces that allows the client and servers to query(import function) and advertise (import function) learning services based on underlying ontologies. If search is successful, it invokes the service selected interacting with the provider and sends the result to the client. If service search is unsuccessful, allows the services to be composed automatically.
    • Their own approach for semantic description of service behavior that includes input/output flows and post/pre-conditions
    • Their own approach for service interface description

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    Dynamic Service Compositons

    Posted by kathayat on October 9, 2007

    Service Compositions Approaches – Static/Dynamic, Automatic/Manual, model-driven, declarative, context-based

    Static – allowing the user to build an abstract model of the tasks that should be carried-out during the execution of the web service (in brief services are specified), at design time or compile time. Usually implemented through graphs. Number of services provided to the end users is limited.

    Dynamic – composing services on demand, composing a service upon receiving a request from user, composing a service at runtime..etc. Capabilities of the application can be extended at runtime. Customisation of the services based on the individual needs of the user can be made dynamic. Seamless upgrading of application or composite services.

    Dynamic Approaches – Predefined workflow and AI planning (Declarative, Semantic, Context-Aware, Workflow-driven, etc)

    • Requires creating a service template may not be trivial or intuitive to users. (Declarative-Based, Workflow-driven)

    Choosing or creating a service template (flowchart like) that describe the structure of the composite service and then discovering the components necessary to convert (instantiate) the template into an executable workflow. SELF-SERV, eFLOW are examples.

    • Requires a user to specify inputs/outputs of the service he/she requests. User may have difficulty to specify (Declarative-Based)

    Composing the requested service through connecting the inputs and outputs of the components such that the execution of the components accepts the user-specified inputs and generates user specified outputs. Examples BU-Grid, NinjaWorkflow etc

    • Requires a user to request service using a logic language for example SWORD requires a user to request a service by specifying pre/post conditions of the service using the first-order logics. Ok..user have to understand the logic prog. (Semantic-Based, Declarative-Based)

    Composing a service requested in the logic language through some form of planning techniques. Examples SHOP2, SWORD etc

    Rao et al 2003. Use of Linear Logic for the Service Composition. Available services are specified in the form of LL formulae (from DAML-S profile to LL axioms), then LL theorem proving is used to determine whether the requested service (composite) can be composed or not. If a proof of the theorem exists then composed service is exxtracted from the proof (ie. process model). Resulting dataflow of the selected of selected atomic services is presented to the user for inspection via GUI. Since is the composed service is guaranteed to meet the specification (available services and inference rules), no further verification is needed.

    • Requires the users request the service in intuitive manner (in natural language). Semantics of the requested service(which is express in intuitive form) is converted into machine-understandable format (semantic graph) through existing technologies (natural language sentence to semantic graph) (Semantic-Based, Ontology-driven)

    Composes the service through discovering the components necessary to compose the requested service based on the semantics of the requested service, creating workflow of the requested service using discovered components and executing the workflow. Example Fujii and Suda (2007) Semantic based dynamic service composition. In order to support discovering components based on semantic of requested service, they propose CoSMoS (component service model with semantic) and middleware named CoRE(component runtime environment). In order to support creating and executing an workflow of the requested service, they propose semantic graph-based service composition(SeGSeC). SeGSec first istructs CoRE to discover components based on semantic of the requested service, next, SeGSeC creates a workflow using the discovered components such that workshow satisfies the semantic of the requested services, then, SeGSeC instructs core to execute the workflow.

    • OWL, DAML-S or other formal languages provides the semantics for the web service composition and ontology representation(ontology-driven)
    • Extending WSDL like adding QoS information, WSTL for adding transaction information etc

    Challenges – Severals

    • Service modeling (description) and discovery
    • Service analysis and selection
    • Service composition and execution
    • Execution monitoring

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    Protected: Using UML 2.0 Collaborations for the compositional Service Specification

    Posted by kathayat on October 3, 2007

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    Protected: A Model-Driven Developement Approach to Creating Service-Oriented Solutions

    Posted by kathayat on October 2, 2007

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